In the 18th century, many sailors died of scurvy. The disease was then attributed to lack of hygiene, but Scottish naval surgeon James Lind believed it to be caused by absence of fresh food, especially fruit. To test his hypothesis, he conducted the one of the first clinical trials. He gave some sailors one lime a day and compared them to sailors who got none. Those who did not get a lime developed scurvy, while those with limes stayed healthy.