Land of the Free...
The horrors of the Black Man and Woman's sojourn in America that we are constantly told to "get over".
Jim Crow was a series of rigid anti-Black laws. The term Black Codes is used most often to refer to legislation passed by Southern states at the end of the Civil War to control the labor, migration and other activities of newly-freed slaves. Southern legislatures enacted Black Codes in the 1860s. The Jim Crow era began later, nearer to the end of the 19th century after Reconstruction.
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1955 photograph of the mutilated body of 14 year-old Emmett Till,The murderers were acquitted by a jury of white men, and protected by double jeopardy, admitted to the crime in a magazine a year later. His mother, Mamie, ignored those who told her to not open Emmett’s closed casket. She insisted on an open-casket funeral, so the world could see what had been done to her son. Sadly, not enough people have heard of Emmett. It’s a heartbreaking story of racism in the South.
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The Scottsboro Boys were nine Black teenage boys (the youngest was 13 and the oldest was 19) accused of rape in Alabama in 1931. The landmark set of legal cases from this incident dealt with racism and the right to a fair trial. The case included a frameup, an all-White jury, rushed trials, an attempted lynching, an angry mob, and is an example of an overall miscarriage of justice.
It took 10 minutes to convict 14-year-old George Stinney Jr. It took 70 years after his execution to exonerate him.
"In a South Carolina prison more than sixty-six years ago, guards walked a 14-year-old boy, bible tucked under his arm, to the electric chair. At 5' 1" and 95 pounds, the straps didn’t fit, and an electrode was too big for his leg. The switch was pulled and the adult sized death mask fell from George Stinney’s face. Tears streamed from his eyes. Witnesses recoiled in horror as they watched the youngest person executed in the United States in the past century die.