Inks and Quires

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an old book with chinese writing on the pages is shown in this image, it appears to have been altered
Loose folios
Manuscript Mäzmurä Dawit [Psalms of David]. The picture shows loose folios held together by stab-stitching. Thong or cord held the quires temporarily together. This system was abandoned during 12th century. This picture is under CC licence, public copyright licence for free distribution.
an illuminated manuscript with ornate designs and symbols
Lapis lazuli blue
Goldene Bulle /Cod. 338 HAN MAG/. The blue colour, the finest of them, was made from Lapis lazuli. Grounded to the very fine powder and mixed with agglutinating agent (Arabic gum) it made very desired and very expensive colourant. The Austrian National Library does not assert its own copyright exploitation rights to this content.
an old manuscript with writing on it
Fading Ink
Carbon ink is chemical inert, no oxidation or reduction. So from writing material point of view, it's safe. But it is easily wasted off. This picture shows one example - page from Magnum Legendarium Austriacum /1471/. No statement of copyrights, presumably public domain.
an old book with gold and blue trimmings on the cover, has a drawing of a red shoe in it
Probation pennae
Leaf from a Byzantine Psalter and New Testament; 1079. On right site of this vellum it is possible to see the probation pennae, i.e. just few lines or spirals. Sometimes there are even loose words or funny little pictures. By this way writer tried his quill and ink. This picture has been released into the public domain by its author.
two brown balls sitting next to each other
Oak Marble Galls
The galls are a tree's reaction to the eggs laid by tiny wasps. And of course, they are the source of tannin. Together with iron sulphate (vitriol) and Arabic gum, tannin created the Iron Gall ink. Characteristic of this ink is how easily it penetrated writing material. On the other hand, thanks to high degree of acidity, it has a corrosive effect on writing material, specially on paper. This picture is under CC licence, public copyright licence for free distribution.
an old piece of cardboard with writing on it
Papyrus's structure
The papyrus was made from Cypherus papyrus, precisely the softened stalks were used. On this picture we can see the structure of this writing material. Copyright © The British Library: only for non-commercial purposes.
an old book with writing on it and some type of writing in the middle one
Mended parchement
The parchment was really damaged and mended. Probably not during the parchment-making process. As we can see the text was written around the hole, to the borders but not on the parchment mend. Copyright © The British Library: only for non-commercial purposes.
an old book shelf filled with lots of books
Libri Catenati
The chained books. One of the ways how guard a very expensive books was chained them to the desk - literally. The chain was connected to the back desk or the spin of the book. Reutilization rights: no statement of copyright.